Skip Maine state header navigation
Skip First Level Navigation | Skip All Navigation
|Home | Contact Us | Calendar||
Site Map |
Just as bibliographic records are created for each unique item in a library's collection, name authority records are created for the unique form of a heading. The Library of Congress has developed a name authority MARC format in order to identify the authorized form of a heading and also to create "see" and "see also" references linking the correct form of a name with alternative forms by which a patron might search. To verify the form of a heading check the Library of Congress Authority File record in the Minerva database or access LC directly at http://authorities.loc.gov/.
Choose the name by which a person is most commonly known. This may be a legal or given name, a pseudonym, title of nobility, nickname, initials, etc. The way the name appears on the chief source of information usually determines the form chosen for the heading. Use:
Sometimes an author writes under more than one name. In such a case, choose the name by which the person is most commonly known. If that is not feasible, use the following as a guide.
If all the works by an author or creator have appeared under one pseudonym, choose that pseudonym as the form of entry. If there is not a Library of Congress Authority Record for that pseudonym, the cataloger should notify the person designated by Minerva to oversee the maintenance of authority records and an appropriate record will be added to the system.
If an author is contemporary and has used two or more bibliographic identities, use the name that appears in each work for the heading. Contemporary usually refers to the second half of the 19th century through the 21st century. Some authors may have multiple pseudonyms, while others write under their real names as well as having pseudonyms. Philippa Carr is a good example of an author using multiple pseudonyms, including Victoria Holt and Jean Plaidy.
If a work is by a contemporary author and different names appear in different editions of the same title, choose the name most commonly used as the form of entry. Mark Twain is the name most frequently appearing in books by Samuel Clemens, but some editions of Tom Sawyer have Samuel Clemens on the title pages. The entry is still made under Mark Twain.
If a person using more than one name is not a contemporary author with an established bibliographic identity, the form by which the person is most commonly identified should be used.
If name is composed solely of initials, separate letters or numerals, it should be entered in the order in which the letters or numbers appear. A name authority record should link the initials and the author's name.
If a name is in the form of a phrase, it is entered as it appears unless it looks like a forename and a surname.
If the phrase appears in the form of a name enter it in an inverted form.
If a name does not convey the idea of a person, group or corporate body, a qualifying designation is added in parentheses.
If a phrase consists of a forename preceded by terms of address, enter under the forename and make the appropriate references.
If a title of nobility or terms of honor commonly appears with the name in works by that person, add it to the form of the name preceded by a subfield code |c.
If the title of nobility does appear with an author's name it is not added to the heading.
The above author has the title Baron Tweedsmuir but John Buchan appears on his works.
Dates are added to a person's name as the last element of a heading if they are known. The date is preceded by a comma and MARC subfield code |d. These dates create a unique entry and are not considered to be a source of information about the name. When detailed are needed note that the order is year, month and day. If there is an established authority file record for an entry without a death date, do not add a date of death to the entries in Minerva unless the date has been added to the Library of Congress authority record.
If the fuller form of a person's name is known it may be added to the name to distinguish between headings that are otherwise identical. The addition is enclosed in parentheses. No punctuation precedes these parentheses. The subfield for the date is added after the qualifying statement and is preceded by a comma and subfield code |d. MARC requires that a subfield code |q precede the parentheses. The most common instance of such additions occurs when the headings contain initials.
AACR2 states that these additions may be added optionally, even if they are not required to distinguish between headings. Library of Congress adds them to all entries if the information is available.
The names of geographic places may be used to distinguish between corporate bodies having the same name.
Geographic names are also frequently used as headings for governments.
Place names are given in the form found in current English language gazetteers and atlases or other current English language reference sources. For example, the English name "Mexico City" is used instead of the Spanish "Cuidad de Mexico" and "Switzerland" is the choice of entry, not the Spanish "Helvetia."
Cities, counties and other small locations such as islands are qualified by adding identifying abbreviations in parenthesis.
Do not add the name of a larger place to the name of a country, state, province, etc.
When a place name changes, both former and latter forms are considered correct. Generally use the latest form unless you are referring to the place at the time when an earlier form of the name was used. For example, use "Gold Coast" to refer to the place before March 6, 1957 , and use "Ghana" for works on the place since that date.
The name used for a corporate body is decided by the way the name appears on items issued by the body itself, in its own language. If there is confusion, determine the name by how it commonly appears in reference sources. If the name contains initials, omit or include periods according to the predominant usage of the body.
When a corporate body changes its name, a new heading is established for the new name. Authority records are created linking the new name with the previous ones if necessary.
Additions enclosed in parentheses are made to corporate entries when the name does not convey the idea of a corporate body. No punctuation or subfield code precedes this qualifier.
If two or more national, state, provincial, etc., bodies have the same or similar names, add qualifying place names to distinguish them.
Omit an article if it is the first word of a heading.
Omit terms or abbreviations indicating incorporation, e.g., Inc., E.V., Ltd., or a statement showing ownership of the corporate body.
Government names are treated in much the same way as corporate names. They are qualified by the names of countries, states, provinces, etc., as is deemed appropriate.
A corporate body may require a local place name be added to distinguish it. Use the name of the local place that is most commonly associated with the name of the body.
When a subordinate body has a distinctive name it is entered under its own name.
If a subordinate or related body has a name containing a term that by definition implies that it is part of another body, e.g. department, section, branch, it is entered under the name of the larger body.
If the name contains a word that normally implies administrative subordination, e.g., committee, commission, it is entered subordinately and is preceded by subfield code |b.
Names that are general in nature but do not indicate that the body is a subdivision of the parent body are also considered subordinate.
The name of a body created and controlled by government is entered under the heading for the government to which it belongs if it has one or more of the following characteristics. The agency name is preceded by a subfield code |b.
Sometimes a subordinate body or government agency is part of another subordinate body or agency. If the name of that body provides adequate identification, skip the intervening body/bodies and enter the name directly under the primary name of the body or agency.
The above committee is the only one by that name in the American Library Association, so it is entered directly under the association's name. However, the Nominating Committee for that Division would be entered with the section name included, or it would be entered subordinately to the Division, because there are other nominating committees in the American Library Association.
If a government agency is part of a major armed service, enter it as a subheading of that service.
|Copyright © 2005 All rights reserved.|