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The first step in cataloging an item is to determine its main entry, or main access point. Access points are headings or index terms used in searchable fields. As many headings as seem necessary should be provided so patrons can readily find what they are looking for in the data base.
The main entry signifies the creator of the work in hand and is frequently the name of the single author or known primary author of the item being cataloged. The MARC tag used for the main entry is 1XX. This is the first field of the record containing bibliographic information. If a work has unknown authors, more than three authors or is an edited compilation there is no 1XX field and the bibliographic information will begin with the title field (245). Access to names not entered as main entries is given through 7XX and 8XX fields; these are considered to be added entries or added points of access on the bib record.
Sources for determining main entry access points:
When an item has a clearly identifiable personal author or creator who is chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work, the name is entered in the 100 field. There may only be one 100 tag in a record. Personal authors can be writers, music composers, map cartographers, bibliographers, photographers, artists or performers. This field ends with a period.
Only the first indicator position is used in the 100 field, as follows:
The 100 field may contain a variety of subfields. Punctuation in the examples below is prescribed by AACR2. The most frequently used subfields are listed in the order in which they would be used. For a more extensive listing and additional examples see the MARC 21 website.
The main entry may be the name of a corporate author rather than that of a personal author or creator. The 110 tag is used and the corporate name is entered there. This field ends with a period.
A corporate author is an organization or a group of persons identified by a particular name and that acts as an entity. There are several types of corporate authors that may be main entries: associations; institutions; business firms; governments; conferences; ad hoc events such as fairs or exhibits and vessels such as spacecraft and ships.
A corporate body may be chosen as the main entry only if the contents of the item being cataloged belong in one or more of six categories:
Only the first indicator position is used; it shows if a name is preceded by a place name or is in direct order.
This field may contain a variety of subfields . Punctuation that appears in the examples below is prescribed by AACR2. The most frequent subfields are listed in the order in which they would be used. See the MARC 21 website for more details.
The name of the meeting is usually the main entry and is entered in a 111 field when the papers or proceedings of a meeting are cataloged. This field is also used for programs or publications of fairs and exhibitions. Entries in this field are always in direct name order. This field ends with a period.
Only the first indicator, the number "2," is used in this field.
This field may contain a variety of subfields . Punctuation and form of entry in the examples below are prescribed by AACR2. The most frequent subfields are listed in the order in which they would be used. See the MARC 21 website for more details.
The uniform title or the title chosen to identify a monograph which has been published under many different titles may be the main entry. Only the first indicator is used in this field. The second indicator is blank.
This field may contain a variety of subfields. These are not necessarily used in alphabetical order. Punctuation is prescribed by AARC2, not by MARC format. The most frequent subfields are listed below in the order in which they would be used. See MARC 21 for more details
Only one author may be entered in the main entry area even if two or three people or corporate bodies have equally co-authored a work. The names not selected as the main entry become added access points or added entries and are entered in subsequent MARC 7XX and 8XX fields. In the example below the co-author's name is given access through a 700 1 field.
If an item includes a collection of works but does not have a chief source of information that gives a title for the entire collection , the main entry is under the first work or contribution named. In the following example three works are all bound in the same book but there is no collective title page at the beginning of the volume.
There are times when the responsibility for a work is divided. This happens when different persons or bodies have contributed to the intellectual or artistic content of a work, performing different kinds of functions (e.g., writing, adapting, illustrating, translating, etc.). Determination of the main entry depends to a large extent on the relative importance of such contributions. There are two categories of mixed responsibility:
If the modification has changed the nature or contents of the original in a substantial way, or the medium of expression is different, the main entry is under the person or body responsible for the new work. However, if the modification is a rearrangement, abridgment, etc., where the original person or body is still seen as being responsible, the original heading is chosen. Following is an example of an adapter as main entry with a note added in the 500 field to clarify the original author. .
The main entry for the original work is used for a revision if the name of the original author appears in either a statement of responsibility or other title information. The reviser, condenser, etc., is given in an added entry.
Abridgments are always entered under the original author with an added entry made for the abridger.
A revised edition entered under the original author
A revised work with main entry under the reviser
If there is no clear personal or corporate author or when there are more than three authors, there is no 1XX field and the title becomes the first field containing bibliographic data. Either the primary or the first-named author is given in the statement of responsibility, followed by a space, ellipses, space [et al.]. An added entry is made for that author only in a 7XX field. All other authors are disregarded. Following is an example of a title main entry when the principal author is not indicated and there are more then three authors:
245 00 Europe reborn :|bthe story of Renaissance civilization /|ccontributors,
Julian Mates ... [et al.].
When contributions by different persons or corporate bodies are brought together either as a collection of previously published works or as contributions produced under editorial direction and there is a collective title, there is no main entry or 1XX field. Added entries (7XX fields) are made under the headings for prominently named editors and compilers, unless there are more than three. If there are more than three, only the first-named or most prominent is given in a statement of responsibility, using the same form as outlined above for more than three authors. Following is an example of a title main entry for an edited work:
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